HCR 20 VERSION 3 MANUAL



Hcr 20 Version 3 Manual

Nature/Purpose of Evaluation Presence Relevance HCR-20. hcr-20 review and annotated bibliography 2 table of contents preface to and description of this updated review and bibliography 3 new research summaries in this update (since november 2008) 4 description of the hcr-20 violence risk assessment scheme 9 receiver operating characteristic (roc) analyses 11 summary of hcr-20 studies by sample, outcome, gender, & country 13, ! 1!!!! Evaluation of Risk for Violence using the HCR-20 Version 3 Please complete this evaluation form once you have completed training videos #1 – 5.

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Evaluation of Risk for Violence using the HCR-20 Version 3. Materials HCR-20 Version 3 V3 Manual and Worksheets. Protect International Risk and Safety Services distributes the HCR-20 Version 3 Manuals and Worksheets on behalf of the Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute at Simon Fraser University., The HCR-20 version 3 is intended to facilitate assessment of risk for interpersonal violence, defined as actual, attempted, or threatened infliction of bodily harm on another person. Like it predecessor, the version 3 contains a compilation of risk factors that have received empirical support across a wide array of contexts. As such there may.

The HCR-20 is the most commonly used violence risk assessment instrument across 44 countries, with over 100 evaluation studies in 32 countries. Version 3 of the HCR-20 was released in 2013 and since that time professionals and organizations have begun the process of implementing Version 3 into their clinical practice and clinical service provision. Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) Manual. The HCR-20 V3 is a set of Structured Professional Judgment guidelines for comprehensive assessment and management of risk for violence. First published in 1995, it has become the world’s most commonly used violence risk assessment tool—translated into more than 20

The Predictive Validity of the Historical Clinical Risk Management – 20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide - Revised (VRAG-R) Ms. Delene M. Brookstein BAppSC (Psych) (Hons) Deakin University, 2011 The HCR-20 is the most commonly used violence risk assessment instrument across 44 countries, with over 100 evaluation studies in 32 countries. Version 3 of the HCR-20 was released in 2013 and since that time professionals and organizations have begun the process of implementing Version 3 into their clinical practice and clinical service provision.

On these topics, Dr. Douglas has provided extensive training, and has authored over 100 journal articles, books, or book chapters. In addition to co-authoring the HCR-20 (Versions 1, 2, and 3), he is also co-editor of the HCR-20 Violence Risk Management Companion Guide. 3. Multivariate analyses (k = 7) › HCR-20 (without H7) added incremental validity to the PCL-R, but not vice versa › With both tools in the regression model, only the HCR-20 (without H7) had unique predictive validity (in six of seven samples) › The PCL-R did not contribute significantly to the prediction of violence when the HCR -20 (without

HCR-20 version 3 Training Book Now. Date: 28th November 2019 Course Summary: This intensive training focuses on developing an understanding of violence risk assessment, illustrating this using one of the most popular structured clinical risk assessments for adult aggression, the HCR-20 version 3 (Historical Clinical Risk Assessment). HCR-20. HCR-20. Click the start the download. DOWNLOAD PDF . Report this file. Description sdfdasadsfdsf Sponsored Ads. Account 40.77.167.41. Login. Register. Search. Search. About Us We believe everything in the internet must be free. So this tool was designed for free download documents from the internet. Legal Notice We are not associated with any website in anyway. Disclaimer We are …

Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) Worksheets (50pk) Kevin S. Douglas, Stephen D. Hart, Chris D. Webster, & Henrik Belfrage The HCR-20 V3 Scenario Planning Worksheets are specifically designed to use with the HCR-20 V3 manual. ! 1!!!! Evaluation of Risk for Violence using the HCR-20 Version 3 Please complete this evaluation form once you have completed training videos #1 – 5

On these topics, Dr. Douglas has provided extensive training, and has authored over 100 journal articles, books, or book chapters. In addition to co-authoring the HCR-20 (Versions 1, 2, and 3), he is also co-editor of the HCR-20 Violence Risk Management Companion Guide. 01/03/2018В В· These are the sources and citations used to research HCR-20 report. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on Wednesday, February 28, 2018

Intended Audience. This Evaluation of Risk for Violence Using the HCR-20 Version 3 training program is primarily for criminal justice, mental health, and victim support professionals – those who work with (alleged) perpetrators and victims of violence. This training program is for beginner, intermediate, and advanced level clinicians. The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries.

ECHELLE HCR-20 Base SantГ©Psy

hcr 20 version 3 manual

HCR-20 Assessing Risk For Violence v 3 - Product Information. hcr-20 review and annotated bibliography 2 table of contents preface to and description of this updated review and bibliography 3 new research summaries in this update (since november 2008) 4 description of the hcr-20 violence risk assessment scheme 9 receiver operating characteristic (roc) analyses 11 summary of hcr-20 studies by sample, outcome, gender, & country 13, Title: Microsoft Word - HCR V3 Rating Sheet, 1 page, CC License, 16 October 2013.docx Author: Stephen Hart Keywords Created Date.

Worksheet for Version 3 of the HCR-20 Amazon S3. The Predictive Validity of the Historical Clinical Risk Management – 20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide - Revised (VRAG-R) Ms. Delene M. Brookstein BAppSC (Psych) (Hons) Deakin University, 2011, The Predictive Validity of the Historical Clinical Risk Management – 20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide - Revised (VRAG-R) Ms. Delene M. Brookstein BAppSC (Psych) (Hons) Deakin University, 2011.

Version 3 of the Historical‐Clinical‐Risk Management‐20

hcr 20 version 3 manual

About HCR-20. ! 1!!!! Evaluation of Risk for Violence using the HCR-20 Version 3 Please complete this evaluation form once you have completed training videos #1 – 5 The World’s Leading Violence Risk Assessment Instrument. Version 3 of the HCR-20 is the latest version of a comprehensive set of professional guidelines for violence risk assessment and management based on the Structured Professional Judgement (SPJ) model..

hcr 20 version 3 manual


L’échelle HCR-20 utilisation • Cotation • Focalisation sur 3 ou 4 facteurs de risque jugés pertinents, relevants • Combinaisons de ces facteurs pertinents (scénarios de violence) • Développement de stratégies de gestion du risque : i.e. propositions d’action dans ce contexte (quel est le HCR-20 (1) • Passation de l’échelle – Consulter et utiliser plusieurs sources d’information – Approche en équipe • Focalisation sur 3 ou 4 items jugés importants – Combinaison de ces items pertinents – hypothèse sur des scénarios de violence • Proposition d’action dans ce contexte

About. The Historical Clinical Risk Management-20, Version 3 (Douglas, Hart, Webster, & Belfrage, 2013), also known as HCR-20V3, or simply V3, is a comprehensive set of professional guidelines for the assessment and management of violence risk. Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) Manual. The HCR-20 V3 is a set of Structured Professional Judgment guidelines for comprehensive assessment and management of risk for violence. First published in 1995, it has become the world’s most commonly used violence risk assessment tool—translated into more than 20

The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries. 19/05/2014В В· The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work.It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries.

Setting a reading intention helps you organise your reading. You can filter on reading intentions from the list, as well as view them within your profile.. Read the guide Г— TIOFP was founded to provide a bespoke training and conference service to professionals from across a range of business, commercial and professional sectors.

The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20(V3)) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 Past: (1) Sexual assault. At 20 yo, while at a park, he lifted a 3-year old girl up to reach a water fountain and fondled her genitals while doing so; convicted, received 2 yrs probation. (2) Property damage. Frequently since childhood, during temper tantrums, destroyed articles of minor value (e.g., ripped books). Starting at 20 yo, on

The Predictive Validity of the Historical Clinical Risk Management – 20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide - Revised (VRAG-R) Ms. Delene M. Brookstein BAppSC (Psych) (Hons) Deakin University, 2011 This two-day training event focuses on the Historical Clinical Risk-Management-20 Version 3 (HCR-20v3; Douglas et al., 2013). The HCR-20v3 is a violence risk assessment tool that follows the structured professional judgement approach to the assessment and management of violence risk. The tool guides the assessor in considering information

V3 Rating Sheets (1- and 2-Page Version) HCR-20 version 3 Rating Sheets are free to download. Please see red highlights below. 1- and 2-page Rating Sheets are available to users at no cost. The World’s Leading Violence Risk Assessment Instrument. Version 3 of the HCR-20 is the latest version of a comprehensive set of professional guidelines for violence risk assessment and management based on the Structured Professional Judgement (SPJ) model.

Full HCR-20v3 Certified Training – Tully Forensic

hcr 20 version 3 manual

Manuals and Worksheets Archives Protect International. Setting a reading intention helps you organise your reading. You can filter on reading intentions from the list, as well as view them within your profile.. Read the guide Г—, Historical-clinical-risk management-20 version 3 (HCR-20 V3 ; Douglas et al., 2013) The HCR-20 V3 is a clinician-rated violence risk assessment instrument comprising 20 risk factors for violence.

ECHELLE HCR-20 Base SantГ©Psy

Materials HCR-20 - About the HCR-20 Version 3. ! 1!!!! Evaluation of Risk for Violence using the HCR-20 Version 3 Please complete this evaluation form once you have completed training videos #1 – 5, The Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR -20) is a structured tool to assess the risk of violence. It consists of 20 items..

The HCR-20V3 was developed to assist violence risk assessment and management with adults. Version 3 of the HCR-20 builds upon the success of Versions 1 and 2, which have been translated into 20 languages and adopted or evaluated in more than 35 countries. Subjected to clinical beta testing and empirical evaluation, Version 3 promises to be The Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR -20) is a structured tool to assess the risk of violence. It consists of 20 items.

Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, Version 3 (SARA-V3) Worksheets (50pk) The SARA-V3 Scenario Planning Worksheets are specifically designed to use with the SARA-V3 manual. They allow users to easily document information, code risk factors, formulate risk, identify violence risk scenarios, and recommend risk management strategies. HCR-20 version 3 Training Book Now. Date: 28th November 2019 Course Summary: This intensive training focuses on developing an understanding of violence risk assessment, illustrating this using one of the most popular structured clinical risk assessments for adult aggression, the HCR-20 version 3 (Historical Clinical Risk Assessment).

Version 3 of the HCR‐20 includes a number of features that should assist evaluators and decision‐makers to determine risk level, as well as to anticipate and specify community conditions and contexts that may mitigate or aggravate risk. Research on the HCR‐20 Version 3 using approximately 800 participants across three settings (forensic The World’s Leading Violence Risk Assessment Instrument. Version 3 of the HCR-20 is the latest version of a comprehensive set of professional guidelines for violence risk assessment and management based on the Structured Professional Judgement (SPJ) model.

V3 Rating Sheets (1- and 2-Page Version) HCR-20 version 3 Rating Sheets are free to download. Please see red highlights below. 1- and 2-page Rating Sheets are available to users at no cost. Title: Microsoft Word - HCR V3 Rating Sheet, 1 page, CC License, 16 October 2013.docx Author: Stephen Hart Keywords Created Date

Intended Audience. This Evaluation of Risk for Violence Using the HCR-20 Version 3 training program is primarily for criminal justice, mental health, and victim support professionals – those who work with (alleged) perpetrators and victims of violence. This training program is for beginner, intermediate, and advanced level clinicians. 19/05/2014 · The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work.It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries.

Sexual Violence Risk-20, Version 2 (SVR-20 V2) Manual. The SVR-20 V2 is a set of Structured Professional Judgment guidelines for assessing and managing risk for sexual violence. It is a simplified, brief version of the RSVP. Since its was first released in 1997, the SVR-20 has been translated into more than a dozen languages and is used in L’échelle HCR-20 utilisation • Cotation • Focalisation sur 3 ou 4 facteurs de risque jugés pertinents, relevants • Combinaisons de ces facteurs pertinents (scénarios de violence) • Développement de stratégies de gestion du risque : i.e. propositions d’action dans ce contexte (quel est le

Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) Manual. The HCR-20 V3 is a set of Structured Professional Judgment guidelines for comprehensive assessment and management of risk for violence. First published in 1995, it has become the world’s most commonly used violence risk assessment tool—translated into more than 20 Intended Audience. This Evaluation of Risk for Violence Using the HCR-20 Version 3 training program is primarily for criminal justice, mental health, and victim support professionals – those who work with (alleged) perpetrators and victims of violence. This training program is for beginner, intermediate, and advanced level clinicians.

17/09/2015 · This study provides both a structural analysis of the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management–20 (HCR-20) Version 3 and an examination of the correspondence between the HCR-20 Versions 2 and 3. HCR-20 Versions 2 and 3 risk ratings were completed for 64 psychiatric inpatients. Moderate to good interrater reliability was observed for the Version 3 HCR-20 Past (Static) Documented (10 Items) Historical Present (Dynamic) Observed (5 Items) Clinical Future (Speculative) Projected (5 Items) Risk Management Violence Risk HCR-20, Version 3 (2013) Designed to assess risk for violence in those with mental or personality disorders

The HCR-20 Version 3: A case study in risk formulation. Article (PDF Available) in International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 13(2):172-180 В· May 2014 with 15,591 Reads How we measure 'reads Setting a reading intention helps you organise your reading. You can filter on reading intentions from the list, as well as view them within your profile.. Read the guide Г—

The HCR-20 V3 is a comprehensive set of professional guidelines for the assessment and management of violence risk. It retains the features that made Version 2 so popular and incorporates cutting-edge developments in practice, including case formulation and scenario planning methods. Key Features The HCR-20 Version 3: A case study in risk formulation. Article (PDF Available) in International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 13(2):172-180 В· May 2014 with 15,591 Reads How we measure 'reads

! 1!!!! Evaluation of Risk for Violence using the HCR-20 Version 3 Please complete this evaluation form once you have completed training videos #1 – 5 Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) Worksheets (50pk) USD 110.00; Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, Version 3 (SARA-V3) Manual USD 70.00; Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, Version 3 (SARA-V3) Worksheets (50pk) USD 70.00; Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) Manual USD 70.00

The HCR-20 V3 is a comprehensive set of professional guidelines for the assessment and management of violence risk. It retains the features that made Version 2 so popular and incorporates cutting-edge developments in practice, including case formulation and scenario planning methods. Key Features TIOFP was founded to provide a bespoke training and conference service to professionals from across a range of business, commercial and professional sectors.

Historical Clinical and Risk Management HCR 20. The Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR -20) is a structured tool to assess the risk of violence. It consists of 20 items., Free Rating Sheets Now Available! Users can now download 1- and 2-page HCR-20 Version 3 Rating Sheets. These Rating Sheets are used to summarize the findings of evaluations conducted using the HCR-20 V3.The Ratings Sheets are made available to users as PDF documents at no cost, under a Creative Commons license..

(PDF) Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 Version 3

hcr 20 version 3 manual

Worksheet for Version 3 of the HCR-20 Amazon S3. HCR-20 V3 Assessing Risk for Violence, Version 3 Kevin S. Douglas, LLB, PhD, Stephen D. Hart, PhD, Christopher Webster, PhD & Henrik Belfrage, MD, The Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR -20) is a structured tool to assess the risk of violence. It consists of 20 items..

hcr 20 version 3 manual

TIOFP. The HCR-20 V3 is a comprehensive set of professional guidelines for the assessment and management of violence risk. It retains the features that made Version 2 so popular and incorporates cutting-edge developments in practice, including case formulation and scenario planning methods. Key Features, Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, Version 3 (SARA-V3) Worksheets (50pk) The SARA-V3 Scenario Planning Worksheets are specifically designed to use with the SARA-V3 manual. They allow users to easily document information, code risk factors, formulate risk, identify violence risk scenarios, and recommend risk management strategies..

[PDF] HCR-20 Free Download PDF

hcr 20 version 3 manual

Version 3 of the Historical‐Clinical‐Risk Management‐20. The HCR-20 Violence Risk Assessment Scheme is a 20-item violence risk assessment tool, accompanied by a 97-page user’s manual. It is intended to structure clinical decisions about the risk for violence posed by adult forensic psychiatric patients, civil psychiatric patients, and criminal offenders (whether mentally disordered or not). The HCR-20: Assessing Risk for Violence, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) is used to identify the presence/absence of violence risk factors in adults from 18-65 years of age. It is a comprehensive set of professional guidelines for the assessment and management o.

hcr 20 version 3 manual


HCR-20 version 3 Training Book Now. Date: 28th November 2019 Course Summary: This intensive training focuses on developing an understanding of violence risk assessment, illustrating this using one of the most popular structured clinical risk assessments for adult aggression, the HCR-20 version 3 (Historical Clinical Risk Assessment). The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20(V3)) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200

On these topics, Dr. Douglas has provided extensive training, and has authored over 100 journal articles, books, or book chapters. In addition to co-authoring the HCR-20 (Versions 1, 2, and 3), he is also co-editor of the HCR-20 Violence Risk Management Companion Guide. Version 3 of the HCR-20 was recently launched in April 2013. In this video, Professor Kevin Douglas, first author of the risk assessment instrument, speaks about the limitations and weaknesses of the HCR-20 and how these were remedied in the third version of this instrument (HCR-20 V3).

ing in the Version 3 manual itself (Douglas et al., 2013). As such, we will provide only a brief description of the main elements and goals of the SPJ approach, which the HCR-20 Version 3 exemplifies and embodies. SPJ measures typically include 20-30 risk factors chosen on the basis of a thorough review of the scientific literature, Version 3 of the HCR-20 is now available. It retains the features that made Version 2 so popular and successful and incorporates cutting-edge developments in practice, including case formulation and scenario planning methods. The following HCR-20 V3 materials are available: HCR-20 V3 User Guide

The HCR-20 version 3 is intended to facilitate assessment of risk for interpersonal violence, defined as actual, attempted, or threatened infliction of bodily harm on another person. Like it predecessor, the version 3 contains a compilation of risk factors that have received empirical support across a wide array of contexts. As such there may Title: Microsoft Word - HCR V3 Rating Sheet, 1 page, CC License, 16 October 2013.docx Author: Stephen Hart Keywords Created Date

The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20(V3)) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 Consultez tous les documents ayant pour sujet 'ECHELLE HCR-20' dans la base de donnГ©es SantГ©Psy, proposГ©e par Ascodocpsy.

Free Rating Sheets Now Available! Users can now download 1- and 2-page HCR-20 Version 3 Rating Sheets. These Rating Sheets are used to summarize the findings of evaluations conducted using the HCR-20 V3.The Ratings Sheets are made available to users as PDF documents at no cost, under a Creative Commons license. TIOFP was founded to provide a bespoke training and conference service to professionals from across a range of business, commercial and professional sectors.

! 1!!!! Evaluation of Risk for Violence using the HCR-20 Version 3 Please complete this evaluation form once you have completed training videos #1 – 5 Consultez tous les documents ayant pour sujet 'ECHELLE HCR-20' dans la base de données SantéPsy, proposée par Ascodocpsy.

Version 3 of the HCR-20 was recently launched in April 2013. In this video, Professor Kevin Douglas, first author of the risk assessment instrument, speaks about the limitations and weaknesses of the HCR-20 and how these were remedied in the third version of this instrument (HCR-20 V3). 19/05/2014В В· The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work.It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries.

L’échelle HCR-20 utilisation • Cotation • Focalisation sur 3 ou 4 facteurs de risque jugés pertinents, relevants • Combinaisons de ces facteurs pertinents (scénarios de violence) • Développement de stratégies de gestion du risque : i.e. propositions d’action dans ce contexte (quel est le Version 3 of the HCR‐20 includes a number of features that should assist evaluators and decision‐makers to determine risk level, as well as to anticipate and specify community conditions and contexts that may mitigate or aggravate risk. Research on the HCR‐20 Version 3 using approximately 800 participants across three settings (forensic

Ann Arbor Publishers HCR- 20 Version 3 Manual [HCR-20 V3 M] - HCR- 20 Version 3 Manual. Qualification Level: A (Psychologist) 29/09/2010В В· The case files were reviewed and the HCR-20 scored based on data available prior to their transfer out of, or discharge from, the medium secure unit, but this was conducted blind to subsequent outcomes. The HCR-20 scale has ten Historical-H items, five Clinical-C items, and five Risk-R items. The H items are based on empirical literature on

HCR-20 version 3 Training Book Now. Date: 28th November 2019 Course Summary: This intensive training focuses on developing an understanding of violence risk assessment, illustrating this using one of the most popular structured clinical risk assessments for adult aggression, the HCR-20 version 3 (Historical Clinical Risk Assessment). Intended Audience. This Evaluation of Risk for Violence Using the HCR-20 Version 3 training program is primarily for criminal justice, mental health, and victim support professionals – those who work with (alleged) perpetrators and victims of violence. This training program is for beginner, intermediate, and advanced level clinicians.

The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries. Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) Worksheets (50pk) USD 110.00; Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, Version 3 (SARA-V3) Manual USD 70.00; Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, Version 3 (SARA-V3) Worksheets (50pk) USD 70.00; Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) Manual USD 70.00

TIOFP was founded to provide a bespoke training and conference service to professionals from across a range of business, commercial and professional sectors. the newest version of the world’s leading violence risk assessment instrument. Take advantage of this rare opportunity to learn how to use the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3) from Dr. Laura Guy, lead author of the supplementary materials. The Workshop is taking place 20-21 November, 2014 in Sydney, Australia. WHY

hcr 20 version 3 manual

Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3) Manual. The HCR-20 V3 is a set of Structured Professional Judgment guidelines for comprehensive assessment and management of risk for violence. First published in 1995, it has become the world’s most commonly used violence risk assessment tool—translated into more than 20 the newest version of the world’s leading violence risk assessment instrument. Take advantage of this rare opportunity to learn how to use the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3) from Dr. Laura Guy, lead author of the supplementary materials. The Workshop is taking place 20-21 November, 2014 in Sydney, Australia. WHY